This paper is based on the results and outcomes of the activities performed in the frame of the Project “NEEDS ON TRAINING FOR BEEKEEPRS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA”/„INSTRUIREA APICULTORILOR DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA”. This project was funded by the Austrian Ministry of Social Affairs and implemented by HOPE’87 and the National Commission in the Republic of Moldova.

     In addition to it, the Institute of Ecology and Geography through the implementation of the project Nr. 20.80009.7007.11: „Evaluation of the urban and rural ecosystems stability for assurance of the sustainable development” has contributed to the organizing and summarizing of the public events with different level of local public, sectoral and civil society authorities for identification of target oriented activities needed for implementation of objectives of national programs aimed at community’s’ development.

This project is aimed at supporting the implementation of the law (nr. 70-XVI from 30 March 2006), adopted by the Moldovan Parliament, which had and still has a positive impact on the evolution of the bee-keeping (apicultural) sector in the country. It  contributed to the improvement of cooperation and interaction between bee-keepers and local silvic, civil society, environmental, sanitary-epidemiological and zootechnic authorities, who supervise and monitor relevant domains of the apiculture development mainly through rayon departments for agriculture and food. It led to the creation of favorable social conditions for development of the bee-keeping (apical) activities in the country. 

Given the importance of bee-keeping in Moldova both for institutional and small private bee-keepers, the Austrian Ministry of Social affairs in collaboration with HOPE’87 and the National Commission of the Republic of Moldova for UNESCO has initiated the project aimed at further development of apicultural sector. Educational and training activities undertaken by the project have contributed to the strengthening of institutional capacities of the National Beekeepers Associations, local public and sectoral authorities though the presentation of:

  • relevant case-studies from other countries,
  • opportunities to obtain modern apicultural equipment 
  • marketing strategies for apicultural products 
  • possibilities of regional cooperation with neighboring countries and implementation of the provisions of Common Agricultural Policies with EU countries.

The National Association of Beekeepers of the Republic of Moldova (ANARM) represents the interests of more than 5.500 beekeepers. ANARM is active at national level and includes 30 local (rayon) associations. According to its estimations, the average age of ANARM members is over 55 years old and these are mostly men. The role of young people and women is very reduced. Members of association are mainly people for whom beekeeping is a hobby, and not a main sources of income.

There are a number of issues that the heads of these association meet in their daily activities. On of the biggest is the lack of trustworthy information on apicultural topics, legal rights and obligations, etc. For example, the cooperation between beekeepers and farmers especially in such domain as pollination of agricultural plantations is poorly developed, although this is one of the key success factors in this field. 

There is a number of farmers (called leaders) in the country who have integrated honey production in their other agricultural activities. They often collect/buy honey from small producers for export while providing them apicultures with relevant consumable materials and equipment. In some limited cases these big farmers provide pollination services on entomophile flowers for money; but this is mainly exemption and does not present a regular practice. 

To respond to the above-mentionned challenges, the current project set as its main objective to prepare training materials for bee-keepers in Moldova. These training materials cover  management capacities, efficiency and quality improvement, etc. The beneficiaries of the project were not only the bee-keepers, but also all the actors of the honey-production environment. These include local and national relevant authorities, farmers, etc. Thanks to this, the project contributed to the improvement of the socio-economic situation in rural communities and to quality enhancement of Moldavian apicultural products. Training activities have also contributed to the inclusion of bee-keeping in the agendas of local and national development plans, which will lead to the increase of investments in the field. 

Furthermore, the project objectes are in line with national priorities of biosphere reserve  and national parks management. These have been only recently created in Moldova and are to become a privileged place for ecological honey production. 

The outputs and outcomes of this project will be used and further implemented in the context of social and economic development of the country. The provided training to the actors of apicultural environment will support local public and sectoral authorities to plan land management, including the extension of pollination practices on agricultural lands. 

For the development of the training materials, the project team consulted and used the recommendations and approaches provided in the EU papers. This puts the project in line with the EU-Moldova Association Agreement and promotes regional and local cooperation in rural development. 

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Lifestyle and responsible consuming
Dr. Dumitru Drumea, expert in economic sciences

 In the framework of the project Reducing the social-economic consequences caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the Republic of Moldova, a guide on responsible consuming was compiled, which is intended to make a major contribution to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

  The development of the responsible consumption guide aims to contribute to and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) [1]. The Republic of Moldova expresses its strong commitment to support at the national level the global efforts to implement the 2030 Agenda (Moldova 2030 National Programme) [2] – a universal, comprehensive, transformative and inclusive agenda with the following specific objectives:  

-promoting the well-being of the population;

– protection and rational use of natural resources;

– involvement of the general public in this process;

– international, regional and local cooperation on achieving the Strategic Development Goals (SDGs).

The principles of responsible consumption urge the creation of a global partnership in which each country consolidates its efforts and ways of collaboration at different levels, based both on the implementation of common principles of assumed responsibilities and shared actions, as well as the realization of multilateral approaches that will ensure socio-economic development, and ensure the rational use of natural resources, reduction of environmental pollution, responsible consumption, etc. 

Responsible consumption practices in the Republic of Moldova are based on the recognition of the global nature of consumption and the universal relevance of these principles taking into account national actualities, taking into account the capacities of different authorities ( industrial, civil, public, etc.) and the level of development of the society, the respective authorities taking over and establishing frameworks at different levels for the implementation of the Global Strategic Development Goals, dealing with cross-sectoral challenges in order to eradicate poverty and social-economic development, but also combating new challenges and emerging crises, which have an impact on responsible consumption at regional and local levels.

Efforts to implement responsible consumption practices are increasing and will lead to adaptation to climate change and prevention of environmental degradation, controlling the rational use of natural resources, contributing to the regulation of economic activities, reducing migration, crises and humanitarian conflicts, which threaten the social and economic development of the country. 

The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic – an unprecedented crisis and one of the biggest challenges we have all faced so far – is constantly pressuring health systems, affecting the implementation of social protection projects and causing major perturbations to economic processes and constraints to social life. This pandemic has demonstrated how vulnerable we are and has also made one thing clear: global challenges require coordinated efforts, solidarity and solutions at international, regional and local scales. 

Addressing the complexity of the challenges also requires political commitment, the promotion of sustainable partnership and concrete actions at all levels, both from all stakeholders involved in the rational use of natural resources and the promotion of responsible consumption practices in socio-economic activities. 

In the light of the 2030 Agenda, the Government of the Republic of Moldova has developed an inclusive and comprehensive national framework, based on a large participatory process – the National Development Strategy “European Moldova 2030”, which is fully aligned with both the international commitments of the Republic of Moldova and the national commitments under the Association Agreement with the European Union.


The Moldova-2030 Agenda focuses on achieving Moldova’s social and economic development goals by ensuring human well-being and rights, education and health, promoting a cyclical economy, protecting the environment and strengthening an inclusive society based on the principles of responsible consumption in all branches of the economy and among private consumers. 

As part of the integrated approaches outlined in the Strategic Development Goals and reflecting the complexity of the 2030 Agenda, the Republic of Moldova is committed to achieving the principles of responsible consumption by accelerating substantial efforts to promote and implement ambitious national projects and programmes, as well as pursuing new initiatives that are in line with the vision for sustainable development, working in close cooperation with partners from different areas.

By promoting responsible consumption in accordance with European standards, guided both by our European integration path and by the fulfilment of the country’s commitments under the Association Agreement with the European Union, the Republic of Moldova is totally engaged in ensuring a comprehensive process of transformation and modernisation, aimed at strengthening efforts to implement best practices in responsible consumption for the society’s benefit. 

The achievement of responsible consumption arrangements provides an opportunity to monitor the impact of actions taken in the implementation of various national programmes on the social and economic development of the country. These complex activities involving different stakeholders in broad consultations with society and committed partners and donors, provide insights into the key challenges ahead and a sharp understanding that we need to act fast, to take further steps in a cooperative manner, supported by a comprehensive approach and the support of all stakeholders. 

While acknowledging the shared responsibility of the Republic of Moldova in achieving the principles of sustainable consumption, and the common challenges it faces in a constantly changing environment, it is very important to ensure the promotion of these principles in the daily life of society and thus jointly contribute to the achievement of development goals at national, regional, local (municipality/locality level).

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SUMMARY to a brief outline of the accounting basics for farm managers.
Author Maria Zagorodniuk, an accounting specialist.

                  Summarizing the fundamentals of accounting was written to help managers of farms to teach them the basics of accounting, the skills of reflecting business operations in the accounting accounts, the ability to draw up financial and tax records .


This article gives an explanation:

– The basics of accounting, its division into managerial and financial accounting

– what belongs to assets and liabilities and their division into short-term and long-term

– definition of income, costs and expenses, their composition, methods of accounting, measurement and recognition

– ways and methods of calculating product costs

– recognition of profits and losses

– accounting of equity capital, net assets.


It also gives examples of accounting of business operations, compiling financial statements and a balance sheet, a tax report on income and expenses.



– schedule of accounts

– balance form

– a blank profit and loss statement

– turnover balance form

– a form of report on income tax from entrepreneurial activity.


Hence, this work is a comprehensive practical guide to maintaining independent accounting by the managers of private farms without or with minimal involvement of specialists in the field of accounting and minimizing their costs for these purposes.

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I,the undersigned Goncearuc Olga, being a lawyer, I have considered it appropriate to publish an article entitled “The obligation of employers to create equal working conditions for employees as subjects of the legal employment relationship, without gender discrimination”, which will explain in depth the national and international legislative norms governing the obligation of employers to create equal working conditions for employees as subjects of the legal employment relationship. In the Republic of Moldova, the right to work is a fundamental human right which, according to Chapter II of the Constitution, is assigned to the category of fundamental rights and freedoms. 

We have outlined the matter of the international standard of the right to work, which every person has the right to earn a decent living through freely chosen work. One of the current priorities of the International Labour Organisation is to promote the creation of decent work and also the establishment of an economic environment and working conditions for workers and entrepreneurs, thus participating in the efforts for sustainable peace, prosperity and social progress. As a result, the Republic of Moldova, by having ratified the Conventions of the International Labour Organization, is obliged to respect their requirements, undertaking to take all necessary legislative commitments to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment, in order to ensure, on the basis of equality between men and women, equal rights for all.

The published article outlines the legislative rules on the liability of the subjects of the legal employment relationship in the employment of undeclared work, which involves the performance of work by a person without having concluded a written individual employment contract.

It also stipulates the basic conditions to be respected when concluding the individual employment contract, the essential and specific clauses contained in the contract and the liability of the contracted side in the event of non-compliance with the legislation in force. However, the labour legislation of the Republic of Moldova establishes the mandatory full reimbursement of the employer for material and non-material damage caused to the employee in connection with the fulfilment by the latter of his employment obligations, and also in the event of discrimination against the employee at the workplace as a result of illegal deprivation of the right to work.


We also highlighted the activity of the State Labour Inspectorate, according to the activity report, in carrying out its duties, by the conditions created by the pandemic, the collaboration with public institutions and social partners, as a result of exercising control in order to detect tax evasion and exclude the phenomenon of “undeclared work”, without due compensation. 

We have also highlighted the main contraventions that are punishable in cases of harassment, gender discrimination, admission to work without payment of wages, or refusal to pay wages, admission to work of minors, which would present a danger to their life and health, or performance of work prohibited by law. We have noted the amount of the average monthly wage in the economy for the year 2022, the guaranteed minimum amount in the real sector below which the employer is not entitled to pay for the work per month or per hour performed by the employee, thus emphasising the importance of paying the wage and reflecting it in the accounting records, as well as the legal liability arising in the case of violation of legislative rules, in the case of establishing and paying a wage below the guaranteed minimum state wage and not reflecting the wages paid in the accounting records.


By concluding the national legislation through the practical implementation of the labour law rules and international standards on the right to work, equal opportunities and treatment, freedom of work, we have highlighted the obvious importance of concluding the individual employment contract between employer and employee in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova. 

However, it is only through the use of legal norms in legal labour relations that we can ensure respect for the legitimate rights and interests of the individual in a democratic state governed by the rule of law, guaranteeing his or her well-being and the right to a decent life. 


With regards, 


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People and the Woods
Nicolai Munteanu

The forest bridges us. Every day we depend on the various goods and services the forest supplies. As well as wood and other (non-wood) by-products, the forest provides vital functions for us – without forests we would not have air to breathe, clean water in rivers and streams, a healthy environment for our own health. If we don’t take care of forests now, we won’t have them in the future.

Although Moldova’s forest resources are limited, however, analysis of wood consumption shows that about 80% of local settlements use wood and other agricultural vegetation as a primary energy source. Another recent study on the dependence of local communities on forests in Moldova confirms the close and direct link between the rural population and forest products. According to the study, the main source of livelihood is agriculture with 64% of income (for comparison, 74% of Moldova’s land is agricultural), and forests provide up to 18% of income for the local population (considering that forests and forest plantations cover about 13%).

     Even if we keep using the forest (for firewood, timber, hunting, fruit and berries, etc.), we must be extremely careful not to damage the forest and its components (plants, animals, soil). We use the forest and its assets to maintain our livelihoods, but we must also be aware that the use of forest resources may not be favourable for the forest structure and its components.

People can influence and help us to coexist harmoniously with the forest. It can be guided by the 5R scheme – reduce, reuse, recycle, reject and reform! People are able to maintain cleanliness in forests whenever they are there. Whenever you don’t come into contact with the forest, rationalise your behaviour (e.g. reduce waste accumulation, don’t overuse plastic bags, refuse extra packaging in shops, use food waste for composted material, etc.), so that we reduce the pollution pressure on the forest to live healthier. In the end, every detail really matters.

All of us, humans and the great biodiversity around us (plants, fungi, animals), are part of a whole world. Forests, which cover about a third of the planet’s dry land, play a special role in providing for our needs and sustaining life. Forests have been inherited from our ancestors and we have the responsibility for their present to pass them forward to succeeding generations.

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Cultural Customs and Rural Development
Dr. Dumitru Drumea, expert in economic sciences Svetlana Debelaia-Buracinschi

In the framework of the project Reducing the social-economic consequences caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the Republic of Moldova, the book Cultural Customs and Rural Development is published. This work is a scientific popularization of the intangible cultural heritage of the Republic of Moldova, which is in fact one of the cornerstones of the country’s culture and identity, the most important policies in the field of rural development based on the rational use of natural/agricultural resources, guidelines for the development of agricultural business in rural communities and examples of works of folk craftsmen.

The purpose of the publication is to provide the general public with cultural traditions based on the use of natural and agricultural resources that contribute to the social-economic development of rural localities in the Republic of Moldova. 

Agriculture and the development of cultural traditions in rural communities is a concept that requires permanent development and is derived from a traditional understanding, developed from systems already existing in the European countryside before the modernization of agriculture and the development of the system of management of the preservation of rural cultural traditions and social protection. As any new idea, this concept takes time to be understood and implemented on a large scale.

The development of rural tourism with the presentation and promotion of cultural customs (folklore, use of natural resources, landscape values, food recipes, etc.) is a very expressive and important area for the daily life of rural settlements. By its definition, cultural customs are about knowing, developing and at the same time preserving the cultural heritage acquired during the course of national history by learning the skills of producing, processing and using products harvested in agricultural activities and using natural resources in various activities (house building, handicrafts, etc.).

Childhood traditions involve the return to – slaughtering the pig, riding pigs by children, baking homemade bread and birds from dough in grandmother’s ovens, etc. Also, attending various workshops organized by well-known craftsmen who carve, knit, bake bread in grandmother’s oven. Local craftsmen strive to continue the cheerful singing and folk dancing through many festivals, exhibitions of old musical instruments, agricultural products and handicrafts.

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